AECT Standards

Standard 1: Design

Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to design conditions for learning by applying principles of instructional systems design, message design, instructional strategies, and learner characteristics.

1.1: Instructional Systems Design

“Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is an organized procedure that includes the steps of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating instruction” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). Within the application of this definition, ‘design’ is interpreted at both a macro- and micro-level in that it describes the systems approach and is a step within the systems approach. The importance of process, as opposed to product, is emphasized in ISD.

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1.2: Message Design

“Message design involves planning for the manipulation of the physical form of the message” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). Message design is embedded within learning theories (cognitive, psychomotor, behavioral, perceptual, affective, constructivist) in the application of known principles of attention, perception, and retention which are intended to communicate with the learner. This sub-domain is specific to both the medium selected and the learning task.

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1.3: Instructional Strategies

“Instructional strategies are specifications for selecting and sequencing events and activities within a lesson” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 31). In practice, instructional strategies interact with learning situations. The results of these interactions are often described by instructional models. The appropriate selection of instructional strategies and instructional models depends upon the learning situation (including learner characteristics), the nature of the content, and the type of learner objective.

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1.4: Learner Characteristics

“Learner characteristics are those facets of the learner’s experiential background that impact the effectiveness of a learning process” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 32). Learner characteristics impact specific components of instruction during the selection and implementation of instructional strategies. For example, motivation research influences the selection and implementation of instructional strategies based upon identified learner characteristics. Learner characteristics interact with instructional strategies, the learning situation, and the nature of the content.

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Standard 2: Development

Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to develop instructional materials and experiences using print, audiovisual, computer-based, and integrated technologies.

2.1: Print Technologies

“Print technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials, such as books and static visual materials, primarily through mechanical or photographic printing processes” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 37). Print technologies include verbal text materials and visual materials; namely, text, graphic and photographic representation and reproduction. Print and visual materials provide a foundation for the development and utilization of the majority of other instructional materials.

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2.2: Audiovisual Technologies

“Audiovisual technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials by using mechanical devices or electronic machines to present auditory and visual messages” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 38). Audiovisual technologies are generally linear in nature, represent real and abstract ideas, and allow for learner interactivity dependent on teacher application.

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2.3: Computer-Based Technologies

“Computer-based technologies are ways to produce or deliver materials using microprocessor-based resources” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 39). Computer-based technologies represent electronically stored information in the form of digital data. Examples include computer-based instruction(CBI), computer-assisted instruction (CAI), computer-managed instruction (CMI), telecommunications, electronic communications, and global resource/reference access.

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2.4: Integrated Technologies

“Integrated technologies are ways to produce and deliver materials which encompass several forms of media under the control of a computer” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 40). Integrated technologies are typically hypermedia environments which allow for: (a) various levels of learner control, (b) high levels of interactivity, and (c) the creation of integrated audio, video, and graphic environments. Examples include hypermedia authoring and telecommunications tools such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web.

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Standard 3: Utilization

Candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to use processes and resources for learning by applying principles and theories of media utilization, diffusion, implementation, and policy-making.

3.1: Media Utilization

“Media utilization is the systematic use of resources for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 46). Utilization is the decision-making process of implementation based on instructional design specifications.

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3.2: Diffusion of Innovations

“Diffusion of innovations is the process of communicating through planned strategies for the purpose of gaining adoption” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 46). With an ultimate goal of bringing about change, the process includes stages such as awareness, interest, trial, and adoption.

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3.3: Implementation and Institutionalization

“Implementation is using instructional materials or strategies in real (not simulated) settings. Institutionalization is the continuing, routine use of the instructional innovation in the structure and culture of an organization” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 47). The purpose of implementation is to facilitate appropriate use of the innovation by individuals in the organization. The goal of institutionalization is to integrate the innovation within the structure and behavior of the organization.

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3.4: Policies and Regulations

“Policies and regulations are the rules and actions of society (or its surrogates) that affect the diffusion and use of Instructional Technology” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 47). This includes such areas as web-based instruction, instructional and community television, copyright law, standards for equipment and programs, use policies, and the creation of a system which supports the effective and ethical utilization of instructional technology products and processes.

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Standard 4: Management

Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise instructional technology by applying principles of project, resource, delivery system, and information management.

4.1: Project Management

“Project management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling instructional design and development projects” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 50). Project managers negotiate, budget, install information monitoring systems, and evaluate progress.

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4.2: Resource Management

“Resource management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling resource support systems and services” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). This includes documentation of cost effectiveness and justification of effectiveness or efficiency for learning as well as the resources of personnel, budget, supplies, time, facilities, and instructional resources.

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4.3: Delivery System Management

“Delivery system management involves planning, monitoring and controlling ‘the method by which distribution of instructional materials is organized’ . . . [It is] a combination of medium and method of usage that is employed to present instructional information to a learner” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). This includes attention to hardware and software requirements, technical support for the users and developers, and process issues such as guidelines for designers, instructors, and SMETS support personnel.

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4.4: Information Management

“Information management involves planning, monitoring, and controlling the storage, transfer, or processing of information in order to provide resources for learning” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 51). Information is available in many formats and candidates must be able to access and utilize a variety of information sources for their professional benefit and the benefit of their future learners.

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Standard 5: Evaluation

Candidates demonstrate knowledge, skills, and dispositions to evaluate the adequacy of instruction and learning by applying principles of problem analysis, criterion-referenced measurement, formative and summative evaluation, and long-range planning.

5.1: Problem Analysis

“Problem analysis involves determining the nature and parameters of the problem by using information-gathering and decision-making strategies” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 56). SMETS candidates exhibit technology competencies defined in the knowledge base. Candidates collect, analyze, and interpret data to modify and improve instruction and SMETS projects.

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5.2: Criterion-Referenced Measurement

“Criterion-referenced measurement involves techniques for determining learner mastery of pre-specified content” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 56). SMETS candidates utilize criterion-referenced performance indicators in the assessment of instruction and SMETS projects.

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5.3: Formative and Summative Evaluation

“Formative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information as a basis for further development. Summative evaluation involves gathering information on adequacy and using this information to make decisions about utilization” (Seels & Richey, 1994, p. 57). SMETS candidates integrate formative and summative evaluation strategies and analyses into the development and modification of instruction, SMETS projects, and SMETS programs.

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5.4: Long-Range Planning

Long-range planning that focuses on the organization as a whole is strategic planning….Long-range is usually defined as a future period of about three to five years or longer. During strategic planning, managers are trying to decide in the present what must be done to ensure organizational success in the future.” (Certo et al., 1990, p. 168). SMETS candidates demonstrate formal efforts to address the future of this highly dynamic field including the systematic review and implementation of current SMET developments and innovations.

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